Case C-179/16, Hoffmann-La Roche – is off-label medicine use, off-limits to EU cartel law?

Imagine. A patient has a specific medical condition. He can be helped by prescribing either an extremely expensive drug tailored to treating that specific medical condition or a cheaper one which works in the same way but was designed to treat other conditions. Which option is a public health body more likely to want to pay for? But what if the authority cannot select the cheaper option because of the terms on which both drugs have been licensed? What can a public authority do? Can EU cartel law come to the rescue when both drugs have been invented by one company? More

Case C-143/16, Abercrombie and Fitch – Italy’s labour law for the under 25’s

Italian law permits a person under 25 to be employed on an ‘on-call’ or ‘zero-hours’ employment contract. In this case, the employer employed a young man for ‘on-call’ shop work. The employer then got rid of him when he turned 25. This left the worker without a job and the feeling that he had been discriminated against on grounds of his age. Since the EU Charter bans discrimination, the question is whether this plank of Italian labour law is compatible with the EU Charter. More

Case C-112/16, Persidera – access to Italian broadcasting frequencies

Perisdera is an Italian broadcasting company. However, it has had difficulties accessing Italy’s radio frequencies. It is a story common to other broadcasters trying to access the Italian market; indeed, there is already preliminary reference about this problem pending at the CJEU, Case C-560/15, Europa Way. This fresh preliminary reference adds a further couple of legal questions. More

Case C-99/16, Lahorgue – prevented access to a VPN and impeded in the internal market of legal services

French lawyers can access a Virtual Private Network but access depends on their local bar. In this case, a French lawyer in Luxembourg has been refused access to the bar of Lyon’s Virtual Private Network. Is this discrimination contrary to the internal market in legal services? More

Case C-177/16, Autortiesību un komunicēšanās konsultāciju aģentūra – the dominant position of a copyright collecting society

Where works are protected by copyright their use will often require money being paid to a copyright collecting society. These societies set tariffs and pass on a fraction of the money collected to right holders. The question in this case is whether the Latvian Competition Authority has been correct to fine a collecting society for a breach of a dominant position through the setting of unfair prices. More