Case C-426/16, Liga van Moskeeën – ritual killing

Belgian Muslims ritually kill sheep and lambs for the Islamic Festival of Sacrifice. Ritual suggests that these animals be slaughtered without anaesthetic or first being stunned. This contradicts general Belgian and EU animal welfare law. However, Belgian law has an exception for a ritual killing. A ritual killing will be allowed if it happens in State-recognised slaughterhouses. The problem is that in Flanders these cannot cope with the demand. Consequently, temporary slaughterhouses are being used, and extra costs are being incurred by Flemish Muslims and mosques. Therefore, the legal question is whether this situation is compatible with legal obligations to protect freedom of religion. More

Case C-451/16, MB – trans pension discrimination

Under old UK law, a married trans person who after surgery refused to have their marriage annulled would not be granted a certificate which, inter alia, would entitle them to a pension at the age of their acquired legal gender. Is that legal situation compatible with the ban on discrimination in the EU’s ‘equal treatment in social security’ Directive 79/7? More

Case C-293/16, Sharda Europe – Deadline missed? Schade!

The problem in this case is twofold. First, what is to be done where EU legislation sets a deadline but the language versions of the legislation are said to diverge? Second, even if the EU legislation sets a date, then can its legal effect still be interpreted away with the aid of national procedural law? More

Case C-498/16, Schrems – a Facebook consumer or simply in the business of privacy?

This case concerns a person with a Facebook account. He uses it not only to exchange private photographs and chat with about 250 friends but also for publicity purposes. The legal issue is whether this latter activity stops him from qualifying as a ‘consumer’. The definition matters because if he is a consumer, then he and several thousand other Austrians who are aggrieved at Facebook’s use of their personal data will be able to sue in the Austrian courts. More